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PARTITION OF EAST AFRICA

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The partition of  East  Africa  was  the  outcome  of  the  development  of  European  monopoly  capitalism. The  partition  was  done  from  1886  to  1890’s  and  it  involved  only  Britain  and  Germany.
REASONS FOR THE PARTITION OF EAST AFRICA
 
The  partition  was  influenced  by  a  number  of  factors  as  follows.
 
i.      The development of commercial rivalries. These rivalries involved German East Africa Company (GEACO) and Imperial British East African Company (IBEACO). Each company wanted to monopolize trade and commerce in East Africa, hence the division of East Africa.
ii.     Conflict between Anglican missionaries and Catholics in Uganda.Anglican  missionaries  informed  their  mother  country( Britain)  about  the  interference  of  Catholics  in  Uganda  and  the  reluctant  of  Kabaka Mutesa who  did  not  allow  them  in  Uganda. Later  on  after  the  arrival  of  the  Germans  under  Karl  Peters  in  East  Africa, the  Catholic  missionaries  preferred  Uganda  to  be  in  the  hands  of  the  Germans  and  not  the  British  Anglican  missionaries. Therefore they supported  the  Germans  under  Karl  Peter  to  sign  a  treaty  with  Kabaka Mutesa. This led  to  stiff  conflict  between Britain, France  and  German  hence  partition  of  East  Africa.
iii.   Early Belgian Empire at Congo. There  was  early  establishment  of  Belgian  Empire  by  king  Leopard  II  from  the  lower  Congo  to  the  coast  of  East  Africa. King  Leopard  wanted  to  expand  his  Empire  from  lower  Congo  to  the  coast   of  East  Africa. This  antagonized  the  British  and  Germans  who  were  already  in  the  region  hence  partition  of  East  Africa.
iv.   The arrival of Karl Peters in East Africa. Karl Peters  arrived  in  East  Africa  in  the  1880’s  to  sign  treaties  with  African  local  chiefs. This jeopardized  the  British  interest  in  Africa, something  which  led  to  the  partition  of  East  Africa.
v.     Economic strategies of East Africa. Presence  of  economic  strategies  like  lakes  and  source  of  River  Nile  attracted  both  the  Germans  and  the  British. This  led to  intensive  controversy, something  which  resulted  into  partition  of  East  Africa.
vi.   Presence of Treaties. Both  the  Germans  and  British  had  signed  different  treaties  with  Africans  rulers  in  the  region  up  to  1886.These  treaties  resulted  into  contradiction  between  IBEACO  and  GEACO  officials  a  thing  which  resulted  to  partition  of  East  Africa.
vii. Investment (influence) in East Africa. East Africa  had  been  invested  by  Europeans  mainly  the  British  even  before  the  Berlin  conference. e.g. Abolition  of  Slave trade  in  Zanzibar  and  the  establishment  of  Mission  centers. This led to the division of East Africa after the arrival of German.
STAGES IN THE PARTITION PROCESS OF EAST AFRICA
The partition process of  East  Africa  began  in  the  Berlin  conference ( 1884 – 1885)  and  it  was   completed  with  the  partition  between  Germany  and  Britain  which  took  place  between1886s – 1890s. The  partition  between  German  and  Britain  was  completed  in  two  stages  of  agreement  between  them.
In East Africa, there was stiff antagonism between:
(a)  Germany
(b)  Britain
(c)   Sultan of Zanzibar
STAGES
The two stages in the partition of East Africa were: –
i.       Anglo – Germany agreement (1886)
ii.      Anglo – Germany agreement (1890)
ANGLO – GERAMAN AGREEMENT (1886) (DELIMITATION TREATY)
It was an agreement (treaty) between Germany and Britain and the Sultan of Zanzibar the area of East Africa.
REASONS FOR HOLDING THE DELIMITATION TREATY
a)  Presentation of treaty by Karl Peters. On 5thFeb 1885, Karl Peters presents his treaty to Bismarck and President Kaiser William I in Berlin. Then  he  was  granted  a  charter ( imperial)  that  stated  that “ any  area  visited  by  him  was  to  come  under  German  colonization, hence  led  to  formation of  GEACO. Therefore, this  led  to  stiff  contradiction  with  IBEACO  who  claimed  that  East  Africa  was  its  area  of  influence hence, Delimitation  Treaty.
b)  German recognition of Karl Peter’s treaty. The  Sultan  appealed  to  Sir  John  Kirk ( A British  Consul  in  South Africa) for  assistance. This led to the Anglo – German treaty of 1886.
c)  Companies interference. The British and  German  companies  interfered  each  other  especially  in  commerce  and  treaty  making, hence Anglo – German  treaty  of  1886.
RESOLUTIONS/ TERMS OF THE DELIMTATION TREATY (1886)
The Anglo German agreement (1886) had the following resolutions: –
a)  German and Britain  recognized  the  Sultan  spheres  of  influence which were to be Zanzibar, Pemba, Lamu, Mogadishu, Brava, Mafia and  10  miles  of  the  coastal  strip.
b)  Germany and British  spheres  of  influences  were  to  be  divided  by  Lake  Victoria.
c)  The territory of Britain  was  to  expand  northward  to  Tana  River
d)  The territory of  Germany  was  to  expand  South  wards  to  Ruvuma  River
e)  Britain agreed to support German’s claims to establish a custom -house at Dar es Salaam.
f)   Britain agreed to recognize Germany possession of  Witu (a small market town in the Lamu County of KenyaEast Africa. Formerly it was the capital of the Witu Sultanate)
ANGLO – GERMAN AGREEMENT 1890 (HELGOLAND TREATY)
Refers to the second German agreement with the Britain over East Africa. The treaty was signed in 1890. The  treaty  was  held  due  to  various  contradictions  that  arose  after  the  delimitation  treaty. The main contradictions were Germany possession of Witu and the 10 miles coastal strip of the Sultan.
REASONS FOR ANGLO – GERMAN TREATY 1890
a)  German wanted to establish a protectorate  in Zanzibar  and  eliminate  Britain.
b)  German  wanted  to  occupy  the  island  of  Helgoland  in  the  North  sea. She  wanted  to  establish  a  naval  base.
c)  A  treaty between  Kabaka Mwanga  and  Karl  Peters.  In  Jan  1890, Kabaka Mwanga  signed  a  treaty  of  protectorate  with  Karl  Peters  that  placed  Buganda  in  the  hands  of  the  Germans. By  then, Britain  had  already  colonized  Egypt, Britain did  not  want  the  source  of River  Nile  to  be  under  other  powers. This led  to  Anglo – German  agreement  1890.
d)  Britain wanted  the  Sultan  to  cede  to  the  Germans  the  10  miles  coasted  strips.
TERMS/ RESOLUTIONS OF ANGLO-GERMAN AGREENMENT OF 1890
i.     The  Sultan  agreed  to  cede  the  coastal  strips  to  the  Germans  for  the equivalent  of  two  hundred  thousand  dollars.
ii.      German  agreed  to  abandon  all  claims  of  Witu  island ( North  of  Britain  sphere)
iii.     Tanganyika  mainland, Uhutu  and  Utusi  become  German  sphere  of  influence
iv.     Zanzibar, Pemba, Kenya  and  Uganda  become  British  sphere  of  influence.
IMPACTS OF ANGLO – GERMAN AGREEMENTS OF 1890
i.     Dar es  Salaam  and  Mombasa  become  important  main  ports  linked  by  railways
ii.      From  1890  and  1894  Zanzibar  and  Uganda  were  under  British  control
iii.     Tanganyika  was  under  German  rule  by  1900
iv.     German  bought  the  coastal  strip  from  the  Zanzibar  Sultan.
v.      These treaties  culminated  colonialism  in  East  Africa.
AFRICAN COLONIES WITH THEIR COLONIAL MASTERS
1.    BELGIUM
(a)  Congo Free State (Belgian Congo) Now is called or known as Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
(b)  Ruanda (Rwanda) and Urundi (Burundi) since 1922 – 1962.
2.    FRANCE 
i.      French West Africa.
(a)  Mauritanian (b) Senegal (c) Gambia ( 1681 – 1857) (d) French  Sudan ( Mali) (e) French  Guinea ( Guinea) (f) Cot  d’ Ivory ( Ivory  coast) (g) Niger (h) French  upper  Volta  ( Burkina  Faso) (i)French  Dahomey ( Benin) (j)French  Togoland( Togo)
ii.     French Equatorial Africa
(a)  Gabon (b) French Cameroon (1922- 1960) (c) French Congo (Republic of Congo) (d) Oubangi – Chari (Central African Republic) (e) Chad
iii.   French North Africa
(a)  French  Algeria (b) French  Protectorate  of  Tunisia (c) French  Morocco
iv.   French  East  Africa
(a)   Madagascar (b) Comoro (c) Re-Union Island (d) Seychelles.
3.    GERMANY
(a)                German Kameron (Cameroon) (b) German East Africa (Ruanda, Burundi and Tanganyika from1885 – 1919) (c) German  South  – Western  Africa  ( 1884 – 1915) (d) German  Togoland ( Togo  1884 – 1915).
4.    PORTUGAL
(a)               Portuguese West  Africa  ( Anglo) (b) Portuguese  East  Africa ( Mozambique) (c) Portuguese  Guinea ( Guinea – Bissau) (d) Cape  Verde (e) Sao  Tome  principle
5.    BRITAIN
(a)               Egypt, Anglo – Egyptian Sudan (Sudan) (b) British East Africa (Kenya  colony, Uganda and Zanzibar Protectorate (1920) (c) Bechuanaland ( Botswana) (d) Southern  Rhodesia ( Zimbabwe) (e) Northern  Rhodesia ( Zambia) (f) British  South  Africa (g) South – Western  Africa ( Namibia – 1915) (h) Sierra  Leone (i)British  West  Africa(Nigeria and British  Gold  Coast ( Ghana) (j) Cameroon ( 1922 – 1960) (k) Nyasaland ( Malawi) (l) Basutoland ( Lesotho) (m) Swaziland.

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