THE RISE OF SOCIALISM
Socialism refers the fifth mode of production proposed by Karl-max, 1818 – 1883 where by all major means of production like Land, bank, industries etc. are public owned and there should not be Exploitation between man and man and the highest stage of socialism is called Communism.
Therefore socialism began in Europe after the industrial development led to the rise of the two antagonistic social users which where the proletariat(workers) and the capitalist or factory owners , especially after the industrial new there were intensive exploitation of workers led workers to form their union /working trade union to demand for their rights e.g. Britain there was the rise of Chartism and Laddish and in France the inspiration of socialism was brought by the French new of 1989 which advocated for liberty, equality and fraternity to all.
Hence socialism was practiced in every part of the world , such as in Europe, Asia and Africa and it was most successful in Russia and other parts of eastern Europe, China, Northern Korea, Cuba and Africa.
AIMS / GOALS / OBJECTIVE OF SOCIALISM
1.Fulfilling its aim by placing all major means of production in the hands of the people directly or through government ownership.
2. Making resource available i.e. Oil, natural resources like minerals etc to be used according to the needs of the people.
3. Replacing capitalism with socialism where capitalism was seen as an evil of mode of production in the society which used to make society not to enjoy in their life.
4. To create a strong workers party; this will control the government on behalf of all people in the society.
5. Eliminating exploitation of man by man, humiliation, segregation, oppression in the society.
1. UTOPIAN SOCIALISM
This means somewhere, no where land imaginary which individual think of doing but it is not; therefore Utopia is like Smith imaginary where things should be obtained imaginary and not practically while Utopia socialism thought.
Refers to early ideas of socialism that developed in Europe particularly in Britain and France Motivated mainly by the problem of industrial class resulted from industrial revolution of the first phase, the pro pounders /founders of autopian socialism thought were people like count Henry de Saint Simon, Charter Fomlio Robert Owen, Louis Blano, Thomas more and Tomes comparative.
THE MAIN IDEAS OF THESE SOCIALIST THINKERS
1. COUNT HENRY DE SEINT SIMON (1760 -1825).
He advocated the state ownership of pond process and distribution of goods and the state should pay according to one attribute i.e. paying base on experience skills and professional.
2. CHARLES FOURIER (1772 -1837).
He proposed the re-organization of the society into a democratic self governing unit of about four hundred families which should be self sufficient economically and that distribution of the profit must be done in liberal minimum i.e. the profit must be given to each in definite proportion to the community depending on labour, talent and capital.
3. ROBERT OWEN (1771 – 1838).
He advocated the re-organization of the society in a group of about 500 – 3000 people; these society should own and use in common all major means of production for the well being of all members of the community or group and such community should be agricultural society and also carry out other occupation so as to render it near self sufficient.
4. LOUIS BLANO.
He proposed that the state should be reconstructed or re-organized on a democratic base, should supply working men with instruments of labour and every individual had a natural right to work for his own benefits but he cannot find employment on just terms at the hand of private individuals rather the state should were to its help i.e. the state is responsible to find a job for his people and replace or eliminate the private individuals/ capitalist; so if the state eliminate the private individual there should not be competition among workers.
5. THOMAS MORE (1478 – 1535).
He was English states man and philosopher who saw capitalism as an exploitative system. He concluded that equality and happiness was not possible for women under capitalism he also advanced the ideas that the private ownership of the major means of production should be abolished and the society should be reorganized of collective ownership of means of production and collective labour.
6. THOMASO COMPANELLA (1568 – 1639).
He named his imaginary society as “the city of the son”; where in this society there should be no exploitation of man by man, people should not be slavesbut the owners of capital, and social progress would be base on science and the rules of such society and to be scientist too.
Utopian socialism was a view which opposed class struggle and revolutionary means because they believed that negotiations between the capitalist and workers would be the solutions for the capitalist to change the way of exploitation to workers and be a friendly mode of production to workers.
CONTRIBUTION OF UTOPIAN SOCIALISM TO THE RISE OF SOCIALISM
1.They criticized capitalism by showing that capitalism was not a good mode of production because is too exploitative workers and majority who do not own means of production. The Utopianist argued workers to re–organize to the mode which will fit to their life.
2. They proposed on a move of human economic set up. The Utopianist wanted reorganization of the society and mostly liked a society characterized by collection.
3. Utopianist expressed the features of ideal society for the good future of the society in which such ideal society must not be ex-send by exploitation of man by man, oppression, humiliation, segregation and should maintain natural rights.
4. They conscioutised and awake and the society to protest against capitalism because capitalism is a bad mode of period which cannot feet in the society due to its evils like humiliation, exploitation and segregation.
5. They lay a foundation to the rise of scientific socialism which come into existence after it had learn the failure of utopian socialism e.g. The failure to use class struggle and revolutionary means to overthrow capitalism.
CONTRIBUTION OF UTOPIAN TO THE RISE OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
1. Utopianist concerned the evils of capitalism such as exploitation, humiliation oppression, and segregation and exposed its weakness to the society that; capitalism is the bad system and it should be fought in the society by all people in order to end its evilslike exploitation, humiliation, oppression and segregation.
2. Utopianist led to a foundation for the beginning of scientific socialism where by Utopianist provided the over for scientific socialism especially the idea of Utopian thinkers which was re-organization of a society so once scientific socialism come in it based on such theories.
3. Utopianist socialism created awareness and consciousness among the workers of the world by guiding and directing them to the directions to be done in order to fight capitalism in the future e.g. workers were consciotized to unite together and fight together for their common enemy until they win because workers have nothing to lose except to gain.
4. Utopianist provided some ideologieslike command economy; where by the state should control the economy and organize the economy but also state should be able to organize the formation of organization to the ideal society, hence scientific socialism come to existence because on those ideologies like the state should be the one that controlled the economy on behalf of the people.
5. Utopianist provided a lessons to the capitalist to get prepared in the future of exploitation of workers would continue because worker would not tolerate with such exploitation rather they have to protest such exploitation and if possible to over throw the system hence scientific socialism come to base on such lesson provided by Utopianist.
6.Utopian duped a theory of scientific socialism out of an experience of utopian thinking hence socialism become scientific socialism when the two variables were adopted in its value i.e. this were directs and historical materialism.
7.Utopian socialism feared bloodshed and that is why they depended on moral persuasion to being about socialism because they feared war as the only alternative way to remove capitalism system in the society.
8. Utopian were too theoretical and idealistic without any clear means to achieve and implement the ideology and theories.
9. Utopian lacked mass support from the mass because they occurred during the premature workers period of the early phase of industrial revolution which most workers were still illiterates /ignorant to know and fight for their rights e.g. during Luddism where majority of workers were ignorant.
SOURCES OF UTOPIAN SOCIALISM
The source of Utopian socialism was due to industrial and its effects during the development of capitalism in Europe as follows:-
1.Poor conditions of the facing system e.g.there were long working hours,Absence of model service, low wages, poor transport, child labor etc.
2.Poor working conditions and living conditions problem. People lived in congested house with poor ventilation, sleeping on the Float a socialist theory of Michael Hegel a Germany philosopher.
THE FAILURE / WEAKNESS OF UTOPIAN SOCIALISM
Utopian socialism had pointed out many problem social, economic, and political problems which faced the society but had one solutions or answers to those problems faced a society could be achieved through so utopian socialism failed to achieve their goals which they aimed as discussed below.
1. The use of wrong method of reforming the system. This was because Utopianist prefer the use of discussion , morality ,negotiation or persuasions so it could be practically impossible to achieve socialism by using negotiations because capitalism is based on exploitation, limitation oppression and segregation and it could not totally to be removed or formed by using wrong method or reformed by using wrong method unless through class struggle and revolutionary likewise Utopian socialist hated class struggle and evolutional means as one of the way to achieve socialism.
2. Utopian socialist had a false way of hoping the attain / achieve better society by relying on the good will of the rich or capitalism to change the life of poor people in the society and sometimes on the lavender but also they were faced with problem of famine and hunger while living in acute poverty.
3. Advancement is science and technologies which removed many workers from their employment during the industrial rev. Many workers went on losing their jobs and the chances of getting bank their employment were limited.
4. Mass dispossession. Majority of people were deprived from owning the major means of period and they were made as laborers for industrial owners.
5. Refer to the effect of industrial revolution to workers.
OBJECTIVES / AIMS / OF A UTOPIAN SOCIALIST
Utopian socialist addressed themselves to the problems which were created by industrial revolution therefore the general objectives were to reform the capitalist system and make it possible to the needs of poor people in the society as elaborated below,;-
1. It aimed at elimination of private property which insists/instigate on exploitation, oppression and segregation to the majority in the society.
2. It aimed at creation of society under which exploitation and oppression do not exist but people in such society will live in harmonious life.
3. It aimed at provision of social welfare to the people especially the poor people. This can be verified when the utopians wanted the owners of the capital to care for the poor people by providing them with social welfare such as free milled , free, settlement, free medicine, free education etc.
In short the major aim of a utopian socialism was to reform the capitalist by eliminating all evils created in the society by capitalism & make people in the society living in harmonious life where by life which are full of happiness, equality etc.
2. SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
This was advocated by Karl Max (1818 – 1883) and his friend Fredrick Angles who was born in (1820 – 1895) who was aimed at destructing capitalism and establishing a dictatorship state of workers (proletarians) hence scientific socialism was the one which put socialism into practicein the world as the case study was in Russia after the Russian revolution of Oct. 1917.
Scientific socialism contained scientific principles of building socialism and philosophical basisof the class struggle and revolution e.g. act (means). These founders of scientific socialism believed that socialism can be attained through class struggle and revolutionary means so there should be the struggle between the workers and the capitalist in which workers should struggle to take control of the state and the major means of production while the capitalist wanted to remain dominant.
Ultimately there should be the revolution by workers (proletariats) to take control of the state and major means of production, so Karl max, Fredrick Engels and Later Vladimir Lenin succeeded to make a revolution and build socialism in Russia in Oct. 1917 after the Bolshevik revolution. Following the Bolshevik revolution in Russia Oct. 1917 Socialism came into reality/existence through class struggle and revolution action in which the capitalist was overthrown in Russia.
Max and Angels wanted workers to make revolution and establish dictatorship state of workers in which worker could seize or get political power and establish socialism but later socialism should transform to its highest stage of communism
Hence Max , Angels, Lenin and other socialist theorists saw socialism as a traditional stage so they wanted a society to establish communism in which a society would be classless, state less and would be no private ownership of the major means of production. Society under communion would be provided with all needs and each individual will contribute according to his talent or ability.
Also under communism there should be ideal society whereby would be no exploitation of man by man, labor power of workers would stop to be a commodity because workers will be working for themselves and for their society as a whole.
The private property under socialism after proletariat revolution must be nationalized by the state controlled by workers and the major means of production such as banks, miner, transport and communication, industries and plantations must be under the control of workers through state super vision.
Large scale of import – export should be also under the public control in a society for the benefit of all people especially poor people in the society, under socialism after scientific socialism, property must be divided into two i.e. personal property and public property in which the public property must include all nationalized properties from the capitalist like banks, factories etc while the other personal property must product and labour intended for personal consumption.
KARL MAX MAJOR IDEAS
In his analysis Max observed the followings:-
(i) Exploitation of man by man was a feature of capitalism.
(ii) It could not be possible to persuade the capitalist to stop its evils like exploitation, humiliation, oppression and segregation.
(iii) What was to be done to put an end of capitalism in which the major means of production was to be put under the control of workers for their benefits and was only through class struggle and revolutionary actions.
(iv) History has been a process of change through class struggle, so workers and other people in a society should struggle to end the system of capitalism and write a new history in a society.
(v) Capitalist are to be over threw by the exploited class who are oppressed, humiliated and exploited, in order to establish socialism.
(vi) All wealth and property in the society is created by labor of the working class who in capitalism own neither factory nor tools of production, hence workers should write together to own and control wealth and property created by labor power.
(vii) The personal greatly and selfishness at the people must be replaced by religion and other ideas of ideal society.
(viii) Workers own only their labor power which they do sell to the capitalist as a commodity so they live only by working to the capitalism hence they must unit together to fight capitalism and eliminate all like bank industries etc in order for workers to enjoy for their life.
Max argued that capitalism was creating condition to socialism to exist because of the evils of capitalism in the society and also argued that once all capitalist class had been broken and overthrown then no longer any exploitative class in society rather socialism would have reduced in climax (peak) and dictatorship of proletariat would not be necessary in the society rather socialism had to transform to its highest stage known as communism in which the following characteristics, features or elements should be observed.
(i) Production is at the highest stage and according to his needs.
(ii) Classless society would come to existence.
(iii) Manual and intellectual labor would have no difference.
(iv) The difference between town and country (rural) would be eliminated.
(v) All other qualities produced by capitalism would be eliminated.
(vi) There must be high science and technology in society.
(vii) There would be no law, police, prison or army because under communalism there is no need of having state and instruments of force.
MAX AND PROLETARIATES (working class)
Socialism has propounded by Karl Max become attractive to working class more than other socialist in the world, hence the following were the suggestions of Max to the workers.
(i) Max organized the first group of socialist from different countries which was known as International working class of the socialist formed on 1864 in London.
(ii) Max manifests become wide spread as the socialist document in the world, calling all workers of the world to unite together and fight capitalism with its evils until they win because labor (chains).
(iii) From 1848 there were a lot of revolutions in the world including France, China etc. where by the workers were demanding for their rights 15 years after the end of the first international , 2 nd international workers must was found under Fredrick Engels because Max has died so in 1893 the 2 nd international workers must was put into practice in Switzerland which was attended by socialist must of different countries who represented their countries e.g. in Russia there was the social democratic party which was under V.I Lenin. Later on VI Lenin carried out the first socialist revolution in Russia.
Generally Max interpretation of history indicated that socialist revolution could take place first in the most highly development countries like Britain and France however this did not happen due to many reasons such as;-
(i) Improvement of working condition of workers.
(ii) Introduction of collective bargaining.
(iii) Introduction of Western democracy etc.
With those factors the first socialism occurred in Russian in Oct. 1917 after the Bolshevik revolution.
THE THEORY OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
This was written as scientific socialism when the communist manifest was published by KarlMax and Fredrick Engels. The philosophical bases of scientific socialism is class struggle and revolutionary action as the most effective way of building socialism, according to Max and Engels in the absence of class struggle and revolutionary action if is impossible to build scientific socialism. From the analysis of Karl Max (1883 -1818) and Engels (1820 -1895) the following were observed.
(i) Destruction of capitalism can only be achieved by revolutionary actions and class struggle since exploitative class i.e. capitalist would not voluntarily surrender.
(ii) The working class is the only revolutionary force capable of overthrowing capitalism because workers has the majority in the society but there the one who are exploited, humiliated, oppressed and own nothing except their labor power until they win.
(iii) The working class will have to form a common front with its alliance with peasant and other progressive social groups must join together to over throw capitalism.
(iv) Overthrown of capitalist state will be replaced by dictatorship of the proletariat which must defend and protect the interest of masses.
(v) The government of workers must ensure the followings:-
(a) The major means of period and distribution of wealth and property are put in hands of workers and peasants.
(b) Labor is no longer treated as a commodity.
(c)The economic structure must dissolve the contradictions in the society because the socialist government of workers must plan the economy for all people in the society.
THE ORIGIN /GENESIS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
(i) German Ideology of dialectics.
(ii) The contribution of French revolution of 1789.
(iii) Utopian socialism with its ideal.
(iv) The English political economist.
(v) The contribution of Karl Max and Fredrick Engels.
1. Contribution of Germany Ideology of dialectics.
This Ideology was put forward philosopher known as Michael Hegel whereby Hegel with his Ideology of dialect insisted on changes in the society is inevitable and always this changes arise out of contradictions, Hegel used three concepts to verify the theory of dialects which are thesis –Antithesis thesis from the German Ideology Max borrowed.
The concept of dialects – and used them to develop the concept of Historical and direction materialism which is called correct outlook of the world, the concept of historical materialism stated that matter is in a constant motion or change and people should understand the laws governing nature. Max Later concluded that the change from capitalism to socialism was inevitable even by revolution because the society as a matter keeps on a constant change.
2. Contribution of French revolution of 1789 in building socialism.
The French revolution which advocated for equality force for the rise of scientific socialism, this was because after French had made a revolution it managed to establish French socialism which stay for start time of only 72 days but it collapsed so Karl max fear its weaknesses involved in French socialism that the French socialism after the revolution of 1789 failed because it was led by idealistic way of thinking and not scientific approach.
From this weakness Max disposed a scientific theory of building socialism which insisted workers to struggle not make revolution/ in order to remove the capitalist more scientifically and not by emotion or immorality.
3. Contribution of Utopian socialism.
This intended to build socialism through moral approach / discussion / persuasion to the capitalist. Karl Max criticized their wrong way/ approach that it was practically impossible to ask the exploiters to stop exploitation and oppression since they were the one who benefited of the capitalist system and usually capitalism operated through exploitation from this weakness Karl Max and Engels depend the method of class struggle and revolutionary action as the scientific way of building socialism in the world.
4. The contribution of the English political economist
The contribution of the English political economic from the English political economist Karl Max criticized them because of their weakness and because they were emphasizing capitalism in the society, there were like Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Robert Malthus because their theory justified capitalist exploitation in the society.
(a) Adam Smith
In his book of the “wealth of the nations” published in 1776 said that all business and economic activities are regulated by the natural Laws which are the Law of supply and demand & the Law of competition that is in any business price will be fixed by the supply and demand; so Smith argued that every man should be free to do what he thought to be the best for himself e.g. to involve in business or to involve in capitalism.
(b) Robert Malthus.
He was an Anglican clergyman who become a professor of economics in his book titled as “An essay on the principle of population” published in 1798 he wrote that the greatest obstacle to human progress was the increase of population, therefore he argued that population was increasing geometrically while production and food supply was increasing arithmetically e.g.
Population Production and food supply
16x 4x etc
Then he comes out with the possible solutions to the problems.
(i) He advocated wars, famine and hunger, diseases especially epidemic diseases etc. all these aimed to reduce population size.
(c) David Ricardo.
He advocated the theory of comparative advantages where in his book titled as “principle of political economy and taxation” of 1870 he recommended that each region as to dwell/continue on producing what is suitable for each region i.e. Agrarian societies should remain agrarian and industrial societies should remain industrial.
Therefore Karl Max come out with the theory of scientific which aspired for building a socialist state under exploitation of man by man, oppression, and segregation of people in a society should not exist.
5. The contribution of Karl max and Fredrick Engels.
These thinkers were the initiatives of scientific socialism who advocated their time to write and expand the idea of building socialism through the principle of scientific socialism hence the ideas of Max and Engels were taken and put into practice by people who aimed and volunteered to build socialism in the world history e.g. Lenin, who built socialism in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution of Oct. 1917.
PRINCIPLES OF BUILDING SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
According to Karl Marx, construction of scientific socialism must be led by scientific principles these are economic base, mode of production, class conflict and class struggle, revolution strategy, agent of revolution.
1. Economic base
The contribution of scientific socialism depended on economic base of particularly society according to Max if the economic is weak do not dream to build scientific socialism but if the economic base of a particular society is strong the scientific socialism will be constructed base in a society were economy, therefore the poor struggle to achieve better economic situation but if the economic base is weak no struggle of the society.
2. Mode of production.
This is one of the determinant factor for building scientific socialism because mode of production determines human nature at a particular stage & conflict tend to exist in such mode of production e.g. in capitalism exploitation, humiliation and segregation are very high this led